The Causes of the Futūh: A New Approach
Dr Elkhalifa Mohamed Omer *
The aim of this article is an attempt to highlight some of the misconceptions concerning the causes of the Futūh. Through examining the views of the historians on the causes of the Futūh although historians agree that the Futūh had a profound impact on the history of Arabia and the general course of the world history, however, there is little agreement among them concerning the causes of the Futūh. Some writers assign the Futūh to economic causes, others to religious causes, while yet others view the Futūh as expressing nationalistic or political aspirations. Recent writers have generally attempted to combine the elements of several different earlier interpretations, making various modifications in content or in emphasis. It is impossible to gain satisfactory historical idea about this topic without evaluating the sources. However, while it is beyond the scope of this article to speak in detail about that; we can point that the historical reports have been selected after assessing their reliability taking into consideration the collection process, (i.e.; how separate accounts were collected and transmitted) and the evaluative methods adopted by early Muslim historians in dealing with these accounts, as well as the tendencies of individual collectors. Furthermore, in cases of inconsistency between the account of different historians, I use the principle of Hadīth criticism as well as applying some modern historical criticism This approach has helped me to great extent not to be selective in the citation of evidence and to deal with the sources free from an unwarranted skeptical attitude.